[GUIDE] Car and general vehicle RP

BrianHaggard

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#147 / O'Conner
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Vehicle Guide
Intro
Howdy! I've been looking over forums and in-game, and amount of knowledge that most players have about vehicles and car RP in general is saddening, but, not something we should worry about, since, most of the players aren't really into cars, or, If they are, they're not expected to be Master Mechanics and know every single detail there is, about cars and vehicles in general. This guide is for those that don't know about cars, but want to learn and increase the level of their RP that includes cars, mainly racing or mechanic factions. One of the reasons I'm making this guide is that I lead the racing faction, and used to lead one before with much more members, and they didn't knew
really much about cars, but they were willing to learn. Instead of fiddling around and explaining to every single person that asks me on Discord or anywhere, I'm making this quote to make mine, and their life easier. I will make sure to provide information that's correct and to the best of my knowledge here, and I'll make sure to keep it short and clean, so you don't have to go through 2500 lines of text just to find out what Camshaft is or to find out how to replace a battery in your car. Furthermore, I'd like to point out that this guide is for RC:RP-use only and IS NOT meant to be shared or used on any other server/community. I reckon some of y'all will find those information usefull in real life too, and I'm glad if you do, but, make sure this stays a RC:RP-only guide and Isn't shared around.

Beggining stepsSo, in order to understand mechanical work, you'll have to understand how vehicles work in general and what's the all enginering behind them. I'm not a master mechanic in no way, but I do study Mechanical Engineering and do Mechanical jobs as a hobby and for fun, so I know what's what and how it all works. To start of.

Most of y'all have a car already, or one of your family members does, so, you'll notice car is driven on four wheels, It needs fuel to operate and there's some weird stick inside you move to change gears (wut?).


ENGINE:
Well, to start of, Most of the cars operate on ICE (Internal Combustion Engine) and some of them on Electric motors, or some, like for instance Prius on Hybrid technology (ICE and Electric motors combined). I'll focus on ICE today, since I'm far from smart when it comes to Hybrids and Electric Vehicles. So, first and main thing car needs to operate is Fuel - Gasoline (Or Petrol as people in UK like to call it) or Diesel, depending on Engine type. In ICE vehicles, fuel mixes with air and forms a mixture that's further compressed and exploded, sum shit happens and boom, you go faster! Well, I'll explain this in detail now:
- Most of ICE Vehicles work on a 4-stroke tact and it contains of: 1 ‐ Induction (Suck) 2 ‐ Compression (Squeeze) 3 ‐ Power (Boom) 4 ‐ Exhaust (Gases leave the engine through exhaust pipe). Let's go further and explain every segment of this:
1 - Induction: Fuel (Diesel or Gasoline) gets sprayed inside Combustion Chamber by Injectors while valves open up to let the air inside Combustion Chamber.
2 - Compression - Piston compresses the mixture of Air and Fuel to the point where It's igniteable.
3 - Explosion (Power): Upon Compression, Mixture is ignited by a spark plug.
4 - Exhaust: Gas produced by an explosion is sent out of the Combustion Chamber through valves then exhaust system and then out of the car.


TRANSMISSION:
Okay, you now have an Idea how Power is made, but-... power needs to reach the wheels or It's useless,
and to do that, Transmission and Differentials exist. I'll start off with a transmission first then I'll explain what differential is.
So, modern cars use Automatic, Manual, or Semi-Manual transmission in most cases, there are some other gearboxes, such as Sequential gearbox, but that's not used so much in modern cars, so, I'll leave it out this time.


Automatic:
Most of the cars in USA are, sadly, Automatic, so, I'll go over that first, what is Automatic, how it works and what are it's pros and cons. Automatic transmission is transmission where you do not have to shift gears by yourself (to make it totally easy and un-professional sounding). Car shifts gears automatically. It all depends from car to car, but in most of new cars, rev count that transmission will shift at depends on the mode, it being "ECO" "Comfort" "Sport" "Track" and etc etc, I could go on for a long time.
Upon reaching the desired RPM (As I sad, depends on mode) Car will shift-up into next gear and so on and so forth. Automatics used to be awfully slow when shifting in the past, but now, due to new Dual-Clutch transmissions, car can shit in a matter of milliseconds, much faster than you could.

Pros:
  • Much more comfortable to drive during traffic jams / In cities etc etc
  • Modern Automatics shift much faster than human could
Cons:
  • Boring to drive
  • Repairs are much more expensive than Manual
  • Old Automatics shift slow as fuck
  • Much more!
Manual:
Manual gearbox is gearbox that's fully dependent on you, and there's no chance It'll change gear without driver himself changing it. It's much more simple than Automatic in terms of engineering and repairs, but much more hard to drive. When you get inside a Manual car, you'll notice, it has 3 pedals, instead of 2, third pedal would be the clutch, It's mandatory to press it every time you change gear in the manual vehicle, otherwise, It won't go into gear and would make a grinding sound, which indicates something's not right. It's much more praised in Car guy community than Automatics or Semi-Manuals, and It deserves it fully.


Pros:
  • Much more fun to drive
  • Simpler to repair
  • Cheaper to repair
  • Much more
Cons:
  • Hard to learn if you're just starting to drive
  • Boring while in traffic jams
Semi-Manual:
This is transmission you'll find in MOST supercars or sport cars in general, Basically it's an automatic styled,
without clutch, but you'll get paddle-shifters or option to shift on the shifter itself. It's better to drive than automatic, it's less fun than manual.


DIFFERENTIAL:
In cars,differential is used to allow the outer drive wheel to rotate faster than the inner drive wheel during a turn. This is useful when the car turns, making the wheel that is traveling around the outside of the turning curve to spin further and faster than the other. Some people avoid this, by welding their differential, so it spins both wheels at the same speed, making the car more "drifty"


PartsOkay, so, here I'll list (almost) every single important part in the vehicle (Mainly cars/trucks) and explain what it's used for.
ENGINE
Engine block - Engine block is the main part of an engine. Most engine blocks are made from an aluminum alloy, but iron is still used by some manufacturers. The cylinder is a hole in Engine block where the engine’s pistons slide up and down. The more cylinders an engine has the more powerful it is in theory, but there's some 6-Cyl engines more powerful than some V8's . In addition to the cylinders, other ducts and passageways are built into the block that allow for oil and coolant to flow to different parts of the engine.
Combustion Chamber - It's the place in an engine is where the magic happens. It’s where fuel and air, are compressed and ignited by an spark-plug to create the small explosion that moves the car’s pistons up and down, thus creating the power to move the vehicle. The combustion chamber is made up of the cylinder, piston, and cylinder head. The cylinder acts as the wall of the combustion chamber, the top of the piston acts as the floor of the combustion chamber, and the cylinder head serves as the ceiling of the combustion chamber.

Cylinder Head - It's a piece of metal that sits over the engine’s cylinders. There are small, rounded indentations cast into the cylinder head in order to create room at the top of the chamber for combustion. A head gasket seals the joint between the cylinder head and cylinder block. Intake and outtake valves, spark plugs, and fuel injectors (these parts are explained later) are also mounted to the cylinder head.

Crankshaft - The crankshaft is what converts the up and down motion of the pistons into a rotational motion that allows the car to move. The crankshaft typically fits lengthwise in the engine block near the bottom. It extends from one end of the engine block to the other. At the front of the end of the engine, the crankshaft connects to rubber belts which connect to the camshaft and delivers power to other parts of the car; at the back end of the engine, the camshaft connects to the drive train, which transfers power to the wheels. At each end of the crankshaft, you’ll find oil seals, or “O-rings,” which prevent oil from leaking out of the engine.
The crankshaft resides in what’s called the crankcase on an engine. The crankcase is located beneath the cylinder block. The crankcase protects the crankshaft and connecting rods from outside objects. The area at the bottom of a crankcase is called the oil pan and that’s where your engine’s oil is stored. Inside the oil pan, you’ll find an oil pump that pumps oil through a filter, and then that oil is squirted on to the crankshaft, connecting rod bearings, and cylinder walls to provide lubrication to the movement of the piston stroke. The oil eventually drips back down into the oil pan, only to begin the process again
Along the crankshaft you’ll find balancing lobes that act as counterweights to balance the crankshaft and prevent engine damage from the wobbling that occurs when the crankshaft spins.
Also along the crankshaft you’ll find the main bearings. The main bearings provide a smooth surface between the crankshaft and engine block for the crankshaft to spin.

Camshaft(s)-The camshaft is the brain of the engine. It works in conjunction with the crankshaft via a timing belt to make sure intake and outtake valves open and close at just the right time for optimal engine performance. The camshaft uses egg-shaped lobes that extend across it to control the timing of the opening and closing of the valves. Most camshafts extend through the top part of the engine block, directly above the crankshaft. On inline engines, a single camshaft controls both the intake and outtake valves. On V-shaped engines, two separate camshafts are used. One controls the valves on one side of the V and the other controls the valves on the opposite side. Some V-shaped engines (like the one in our illustration) will even have two camshafts per cylinder bank. One camshaft controls one side of valves, and the other camshaft controls the other side.

Piston- Pistons move up and down the cylinder. They look like upside down soup cans. When fuel ignites in the combustion chamber, the force pushes the piston downward, which in turn moves the crankshaft (see below). The piston attaches to the crankshaft via a connecting rod, aka the con rod. It connects to the connecting rod via a piston pin, and the connecting rod connects to the crankshaft via a connecting rod bearing. On the top of the piston, you’ll find three or four grooves cast into the metal. Inside the grooves piston rings are put in. The piston rings are the part that actually touch the walls of the cylinder. They are made from iron and come in two varieties: compression rings and oil rings. The compression rings are the top rings and they press outward on the walls of the cylinder to provide a strong seal for the combustion chamber. The oil ring is the bottom ring on a piston and it prevents oil from the crankcase from seeping into the combustion chamber. It also wipes excess oil down the cylinder walls and back into the crankcase.

Valvetrain - The valvetrain is the mechanical system that’s mounted to the cylinder head that controls the operation of the valves. The valve train consists of valves, rocker arms, pushrods, and lifters.
Valves - There are two types of valves: intake valves and outtake valves. Intake valves bring a mixture of air and fuel into the combustion chamber to create the combustion to power the engine. Outtake valves let the exhaust that’s created after the combustion out of the combustion chamber.
Cars typically have one intake valve and one outtake valve per cylinder. Most high-performing cars (Jaguars, Maseratis, etc.) have four valves per cylinder (two intake, two outtake). While not considered a “high performance” brand, Honda also uses four valves per cylinder on their vehicles. There are even engines with three valves per cylinder — two inlet valves, one outtake valve. Multi-valve systems allow the car to “breathe” better, which in turn improves engine performance.

Piston rings- It's the "seal" on the top of the piston that prevents the fuel from mixing with engine oil or vice-versa.

Oil Pan- It's the very bottom of the engine, that's the place where the oil is.

Spark plugs - Above each cylinder is a sparkplug. When it sparks, it ignites the compressed fuel and air, causing the mini-explosion that pushes the piston down.
Rocker arms - Rocker arms are little levers that touch the lobes, or cams, on the camshaft. When a lobe lifts one end of the rocker, the other end of the rocker presses down on the valve stem, opening the valve to let air in to the combustion chamber or letting exhaust out. It works sort of like a see-saw.
Pushrods/Lifters - Sometimes camshaft lobes touch the rocker arm directly (as you see with overhead camshaft engines), thus opening and closing the valve. On overhead valve engines, the camshaft lobes don’t come into direct contact with the rocker arms, so pushrods or lifters are used.

Injectors - In order to create the combustion needed to move the pistons, we need fuel in the cylinders. Before the 1980s, cars used carburetors to supply fuel to the combustion chamber. Today, all cars use one of three fuel injection systems: direct fuel injection, ported fuel injection, or throttle body fuel injection.
With direct fuel injection, each cylinder gets its own injector, which sprays fuel directly into the combustion chamber at just the right time to combust.
With ported fuel injection, instead of spraying the fuel directly into the cylinder, it sprays into the intake manifold just outside the valve. When the valve opens, air and fuel enter the combustion chamber.
Throttle body fuel injection systems sort of work how carburetors did, but without the carburetor. Instead of each cylinder getting its own fuel injector, there’s only one fuel injector that goes to a throttle body. The fuel mixes with air in the throttle body and then is dispersed to the cylinders via the intake valves.

MISCELLANEOUS ABOUT ENGINE
Water Pump- It's the pump that pumps the water inside the cooling system.
Fuel Pump- It's for the fuel, obviously, It pumps the fuel to the injectors that later spray it into the cylinders.
Oil Pump- It's usefull for keeping the oil flowing and everything being smooth.
Oil Filter- It's used to clean the oil from un-wanted particles and dirt.
Fuel Filter- It's used to filter the fuel from un-wanted dirt and particles that might come inside the gas tank.
Air Filter- Cleans the air that's going insde the engine.
Intake- Sucks the air into the engine.

MISCELLANEOUS ABOUT CAR IN GENERAL
Fuel tank - Used to store fuel, ovbiously.
Servo pump - To make your steering easier
Spark-plug cables - Bringing electricity to spark plugs
Battery - Uh-... isn't it obvious?
Shock-absorbers - To make your ride more comfy.
Exhaust Manifold - Gases that exit the engine go through it
There's much more parts, but I've explained those that need explanation and are imporant for a general car kowledge, others like Muffler, Tire, Rims and that, It's pointless to explain since every grandma knows them


RepairsNow, for the interesting part, how to repair and upgrade something on your car, so I'll explain some interesting and important bits:
ENGINE SWAP
- Removing the Old Engine

Remove the hood. While most projects done “under the hood” can be done beneath a hood that’s still in place, removing the engine from your vehicle is likely not one of them. The hood may interfere with your ability to access connections or bolts and will cause problems if you lift the engine out of the engine bay using a cherry picker or engine hoist. The hood will be held in place by hinges on either side, each with two or three bolts. You and a friend will need to support the weight of the hood as you each remove the bolts connecting the hood to the hinges. Once the bolts have been removed, lift the hood off of the vehicle.
Removing the hood is a two-person job, as one person will have to lift each end.
Screw the bolts back into the hood to avoid losing them once they are removed.
Place the hood someplace safe, with cloth pads at each point it may come into the contact with the ground to avoid damaging the paint.


Drain all fluids from the engine. An engine uses a number of different fluids in regular use and all of it will need to be drained prior to removing the engine. Start with the engine oil, which can be drained through the oil drain plug on the oil pan. The coolant can be drained from the radiator petcock, though it’s important to note that there will still be coolant throughout the system as you disconnect coolant lines. The washer fluid reservoir is likely attached to the body of the vehicle, rather than the engine, and can be left alone.
The fluids drained from your vehicle cannot be re-used in the new engine.
Drain engine oil and coolant into separate containers for later recycling.
You can bring oil and coolant to many auto parts stores to be recycled for free.


Disconnect the intake, exhaust and coolant lines. The intake draws air into your engine and looks like a pipe or tube traveling from the air filter to the throttle body. Disconnect the pipe from the throttle body, then remove all the fasteners holding the intake in place and remove it from the engine bay. You may or may not need to remove the radiator in order to remove the old engine, but you will certainly need to disconnect the coolant lines traveling from the radiator to the old engine. The exhaust can be unbolted at the bottom of the exhaust manifold.
Expect coolant lines to drip or pour coolant as they are disconnected, so place a container beneath each as you disconnect them.
Refer to your vehicle’s service manual to ensure you have located and disconnected all necessary coolant lines.
Remember that removing the exhaust bolts can be extremely difficult. Spray the bolts with WD40 and use a breaker bar to remove them, but be careful not to break the bolts.


Disconnect the wiring. Depending on the era of your vehicle, there is a wide variety of wiring possibilities that you may need to address when conducting an engine swap. The more modern the vehicle, the more wiring and sensors you’ll often have to contend with when disconnecting the engine. Be careful not to damage the connectors as you pull them apart, as they are usually made of plastic that can become brittle.
Refer to a service manual specific to your vehicle’s year, make and model to ensure you disconnect all of the appropriate connections.
Older, carbureted motors may have fairly few wired connections to contend with, while brand new cars often have many electrical connections.


Unbolt the engine from the transmission. Depending on how the engine is mounted in the vehicle’s engine bay, the transmission may either be behind or to the side of the engine. The bell housing of the transmission fits into place at the back of the engine, or opposite where you will find the serpentine or drive belt. Remove all of the bolts that pass through the bell housing of the transmission and into the engine block. Place a transmission jack below the transmission to support its weight once it is no longer connected to the engine.
Be very careful not to strip the bolts that connect the transmission to the engine block, as it will be very difficult to drill and tap out bolts with broken heads.
Do not remove the bolts one at a time. Instead, loosen each of them a bit at a time until they are all hand loose before removing them.


Disconnect the motor mount bolts. The engine in your vehicle is likely connected by three motor mounts, with the fourth serving as the transmission mount. These motor mounts are usually made up of steel and rubber (to absorb engine vibration) with a single bolt passing through the mount to secure the engine. You will need to use a wrench on one end of the motor mount bolt to hold it in place as you use another wrench to loosen and remove the nut from the other side. If you are using a cherry picker to lift the engine out of the engine bay, use your vehicle’s service manual to locate the points to bolt the chain to the engine without doing any damage, and put the chains in place as you remove the motor mounts.
If you intend to lower the engine out of the bottom of the vehicle, you will likely need to remove a cross member and place an engine jack beneath the engine.
With the motor mount bolts removed, the engine will now be supported by the cherry picker or engine jack.


Either raise or lower the engine from the engine bay. Depending on the design of your vehicle, it may be easier to raise the engine out of the engine bay using a cherry picker, or to leave the engine where it is and raise the vehicle itself over it. If you are using a professional lift, raising the vehicle above the engine is fairly straightforward, but most home mechanics may struggle to lift the vehicle above the engine.
Have a friend jack the engine up using the cherry picker, as you carefully guide the engine to ensure it doesn’t begin to swing dangerously.
Allowing the engine to swing around could cause damage to the engine or your vehicle and can easily injure you.
Be extremely careful not to get a finger or hand pinched between a swinging engine and the engine bay, as most engines weigh hundreds of pounds.

Installing the New Engine

Locate a good replacement. There are two primary methods of locating a replacement engine: new or rebuilt motors or motors from donor cars. New and rebuilt motors can be purchased from a number of online retailers. Brand new motors are commonly called “crate” motors and offer the reliability of a brand new engine. Rebuilt or refurbished motors were removed from donor cars and disassembled to identify any issues, then reassembled with new gaskets. Both new and rebuilt motors are reliable, and both can often be bought with a warranty. Donor engines are often the least expensive, as they are simply removed from another car and placed into yours.
Donor engines can sometimes be extremely easy to install, especially if both your vehicle and the donor vehicle are at your garage.
Crate motors are the most expensive, but offer the highest level of reliability.
Rebuilt and refurbished motors tend to cost slightly less, but are still considered quite reliable.



Visually inspect the new engine compared to the old. Before installing the new engine, compare it to the one you just removed to ensure they match. Because the same vehicle may have come with multiple engines in the same model year and there may be dozens of variations over the years, it’s important to verify the new engine will bolt in exactly as the old one did. Look for the placement of the accessories (like power steering, alternator and air conditioning) as well as the location of the intake and exhaust manifolds and motor mount brackets.
If the new engine is missing any accessory components like power steering, it may be easier to remove it from the old engine and install it on the new one before it is placed into the engine bay.
Engine blocks often have engine codes cast into them. If you locate the engine code, refer it to your vehicle’s service manual to ensure it is the proper engine for the vehicle.


Either lower or raise the new engine into the engine bay. Place the new engine in the engine bay using the same method you used to remove the old one. If you are lowering the engine into place, have a friend slowly and carefully release the pressure in the cherry picker as you guide the engine into place. Take great care to slide the engine into place over the input shaft of the transmission without damaging it.
The engine may want to twist in the chains as it is lowered by a cherry picker, so be careful to keep the engine aligned properly.
Do not release all of the tension in the cherry picker once the engine is in place.
If you lower the vehicle down over the engine, take great care to ensure it is lined up properly to avoid doing damage to the body of the vehicle or the engine.


Bolt the engine in place using the motor mounts. With the engine in place, slide the motor mount bolts through the motor mounts and secure them using two wrenches. Make sure to have all three motor mounts connected and tight before releasing the tension on the cherry picker and allowing the car to support the weight of the engine.
Before connecting the new motor mounts, inspect them for damage. If the rubber bushings are cracked or damaged, you should replace them before installing the new engine.
Reduce the pressure on the cherry picker slowly to ensure the motor mounts will support the weight of the engine.


Connect the engine to the transmission. Using the same bolts you removed from the bell housing of the transmission, connect the new engine to the old transmission. Make sure the transmission’s bell housing slides into place and is flush against the engine block and is not at any kind of an angle as you tighten the bolts.
Refer to your vehicle’s service manual to find out the specific torque specifications required for the bolts connecting your transmission to the engine.
You may need to use a torque wrench to ensure you place the proper force into tightening these bolts.
Part

Connecting the New Engine

Connect the engine wiring harness. Depending on the make, year, and model of your vehicle, connecting the engine wiring harness may be a fairly simple or an incredibly complex endeavor. If the new engine and the old are exactly the same, it will simplify the process of locating and connecting each of the necessary wires, sensors and connections.
New model vehicles have far more wiring to contend with.
Failing to connect the wiring harness properly can prevent the engine from running, make it run poorly, or affect the interior operations of the vehicle such as the gauge’s operation.


Run all the necessary connections. Reconnect the coolant lines and all other connections you had to separate when removing the old engine. If you needed to remove components from your old engine to install on your new one, such as the intake manifold or fuel rail, be sure to connect these as well. Use your vehicle’s service manual to locate and connect all coolant, vacuum, and fuel lines that must be present to make your vehicle run properly.
This is likely the most time consuming step in the process, as there are a number of connections to address.
Clearances should not be an issue with a replacement motor when running the connections.


Install the intake. Reinstall the intake, connecting it to the air filter and mass airflow sensor (if equipped) on one end and the throttle body on the other. Many intakes are supported by mounting brackets that will also need to be secured.
There should be at least one vacuum line connecting to your intake from the cylinder head, but some vehicles may have others.
There should be no open nipples or nozzles on the intake anywhere once installed.


Connect the coolant lines. Reconnect the coolant lines to the radiator in the same way you removed them. Many coolant lines will require a hand wrench or phillip’s head screw driver to tighten over their respective pipes. Make sure all connections are tight, but be careful not to overtighten them and crack the plastic piping.
If any of the hose clamps used on the coolant lines seem unusable, you can purchase replacement ones at most auto parts stores.


Look over your work for what you’ve missed. An engine needs air, fuel and spark to run, so start by making sure the intake, fuel lines and electrical system are all installed and intact. Then start running through the rest of the connections you’ve made, ensuring each is tight and in its proper place. Refer to your vehicle’s service manual regularly as you compare its diagrams to what you see in your engine bay to be sure everything has been installed properly.
If you see an issue, it may be daunting to take things back apart to address it, but starting the engine with something connected poorly or incorrectly can cause serious damage to your new engine.
You may want to ask a friend to look things over as well, in case they notice something you’ve missed.


Add oil and coolant. With everything in place, refill your radiator with a 50/50 water and coolant mix and add the appropriate amount of oil to the engine. Refer to your vehicle’s service manual for fluid capacities and ensure you meet them.
With everything connected and the fluids refilled, the vehicle should be ready to run.
Turn the car over without letting it start a few times (by turning the key as though you want to start it, and then back quickly) to prime the fuel pump and being pumping oil through the engine before starting it for the first time.


Break in new and rebuilt motors. New internal engine components must wear together under certain conditions before they can perform their best. This is referred to as "breaking them in." Start by driving the car at varying speeds for the first two hundred or so miles. Then, take a few medium throttle accelerations up to around 4,500 RPMs and allow the engine to cool completely. Repeat this with heavy throttle a few times, and allow it to cool again. Then change the oil. Drive the car for another 500 miles regularly, without exceeding the red line for your vehicle to finish the break in.
Properly breaking in a motor can prolong its life and ensure it performs properly.
Do not drive the vehicle aggressively until after you've broken it in for 500-700 miles.
- Obiously copied from wikihow, since I can't be assed to write about 2 hours how to change an engine to someone who won't give a damn.


TURBOCHARGING
-Turbocharging

How a Turbo Works in a Car
A turbocharger can increase an engine’s capacity without adding significant weight to a car. Most car manufacturers improve an engine’s power by making it larger, or adding more cylinders.. However, this also means that the car will be larger or heavier. Turbochargers are used in many race cars, when every fraction of a pound counts, but can also be added to almost any vehicle to extend its performance.

Internal combustion engines work by using the air pressure created by a piston as it does an intake stroke. This action pushes the air and fuel into the cylinders. The turbo is a forced induction device, meaning it uses compressed air that is pushed hard through to the internal combustion engine. Compressing air allows the engine to propel more air into the cylinders, which in turn increases the amount of fuel used, raising the engine’s power. Normally, air pressure (at sea level) has a PSI (pounds per square inch) of 14.7. This is the amount of pressure an engine gets when the piston completes and intake stroke. A turbocharger can add about six to eight more pounds of pressure. This means that with each boost, a turbocharger can increase an engine’s capacity by up to 40 percent.

The Turbocharging Process
The two main parts of a turbocharger are the turbine and the compressor. The turbine captures the kinetic energy of the exhaust gas. The movement of the gas causes the turbine blades to spin. The blades spin very fast, between 150,000 rpm to 250,000 rpm. The compressor then takes the air generated by the blades and drives it into the cylinders.

The speed of the turbine can make it very unstable, and thus the turbine shaft needs to be supported well. This is done with a fluid bearing, and the shaft is basically supported with a thin oil layer. This oil is continuously pumped around the turbine shaft, cooling the turbocharger and reducing friction.


Types of Turbochargers
Turbochargers are available in different sizes and designs, and each caters to different types of engines and car owners. There are several types of turbochargers available today and these are the standard, ball bearing, twin-scroll, and variable geometry turbos.

Standard Turbo
The standard turbo is the basic type of turbo used in many trucks and cars. The compressor is made of lightweight aluminum, and the compressor housing is constructed out of steel or cast iron since this part experiences a lot of wear and tear. This type of turbo has one inner channel where the air is compressed by the turbine blades. As described earlier, the shaft uses engine oil for cooling and stabilization.

Ball Bearing Turbo
The ball bearing turbo uses two ball bearing assemblies to keep the shaft steady, while reducing friction. This type of bearing can be found in more advanced vehicles. The ball bearing assemblies allow the turbine blades to spin faster without losing stability, thus allowing a more powerful boost with less turbo lag.

Twin-scroll Turbo
Twin-scroll turbochargers (not to be confused with twin turbochargers) utilize two exhaust gas inlets inside the housing. These passages are regulated by the wastegate. Sometimes, cylinders can interfere with each other, making gas collection difficult for the turbo. The two chambers (divided by split walls) in the twin-scroll turbos are able to compensate for this and efficiently accumulate more exhaust than the standard turbo.

Variable Geometry Turbo
The variable geometry turbo uses variable (or moveable) vanes to pump the air more efficiently. The problem with regular turbochargers is that when the engine is running slowly, the exhaust cannot move the turbines swiftly. The vanes in the shaft of a variable geometry turbo are able to move and shift the direction of the exhaust gas to optimize the system. These vanes are able to guide the exhaust towards the turbine, and adjust their angles to compensate for the slower engine speed.


How to Install a Turbo in a Car
Installing a turbocharger is one of the most common upgrades car enthusiasts perform on their cars. While those who are doing it for the first time should study the steps carefully and consult with experts if necessary, non-professionals shouldn’t feel intimidated at the prospect of installing a turbo. Most turbo kits will have all the necessary parts, fittings, and rubber hoses needed to install the turbocharger, but it’s best to take stock of all the materials before proceeding. The steps are outlined as follows:

Use a hydraulic lift or jack stands to raise the front part of the car. Secure the lift or jacks to prevent any accidents.
Place an oil pan under the engine and remove the oil plug. Allow the engine oil to drain completely before inserting the plug back in place.
Remove the bumper and install the intercooler or air cooler.
Attach the turbocharger to its accompanying turbo manifold or header. Take out the existing exhaust header and replace it with the turbocharger and manifold system. Connect the turbo manifold to the engine’s exhaust. If the turbocharger kit has an oxygen sensor, attach it to the mounting hole.
Make a tap in the vehicle’s oil filter line. Connect this tap to the turbo’s oil feed line, and then attach the return line to the engine oil pan.
The next step is to connect the turbo’s air outlet to the engine’s intake. Join the hoses and metal pipes to the turbo’s compressed air outlet, and then attach these pipes and hoses to one side of the intercooler. Remove any filters or tubes from the engine’s air intake. On the other side of the intercooler, affix any remaining hoses and pipes, and then connect these to the engine’s air intake system.
Check to make sure all the fittings, bolts, and taps are secure.
Add new engine oil to the car. Remove the car from the lift or stands and take it for a test drive.

Buying a Turbo on eBay
Turbo kits, parts, and accessories are available from a variety of websites on the Internet. However, you can save yourself the trouble of going to different websites by going straight to eBay Motors, which has a large selection of car parts.

Searching for a Turbo on eBay Motors
Finding a turbo on eBay can be simple, especially if you use the search box on any page on eBay. However, eBay Motors provides a more targeted approach when it comes to searching for anything car-related. You can use the “Find a part or accessory” option on the front page to specify which make and model of car you own. Enter the key terms in the box below this option as you would on any search engine. You can use anything related to the type of turbo you want, like “turbo supercharger” or “turbo kit intake pipe.”


SUPERCHARGING
1. First, you pick a supercharger. Adapting a piece of ventilation equipment isn't going to cut it; you need one that is optimized for delivering the pressure you want at the airflow levels you need. Selecting a supercharger involves calculating how much air you want to flow into your engine and what pressure you want this air to be. Once you have these numbers, you compare your engine's needs to graphs called compressor maps that you can get from the supercharger's manufacturer. There is no one size fits all supercharger, or even one that fits a wide variety of cars from 1.5 to 5.1 liters. If anybody claims to have a single “supercharger” that will be equally effective across a size range like that, the only way it could be equally effective would be if it fails to do anything for any sized engine.

At this point, you will have to decide whether you want a centrifugal supercharger or a positive displacement one. Positive displacement superchargers put out nearly constant boost at any engine speed, making them a good choice if you want low RPM torque. Centrifugal superchargers are lighter and more efficient, but the boost builds with engine speed. So a centrifugal supercharger is not going to do much at low RPM. Their extra efficiency, however, means that theoretically you should get more performance for the same amount of boost.

2. Next, you have to find a good way to get the supercharger physically on the engine, positioned in such a way that you can set up a pulley to drive it. There are two ways to go about doing this – you can make a new intake manifold and attach the supercharger to that, or you can attach the supercharger to a bracket like it's an overgrown alternator. Usually positive displacement superchargers attach to the intake manifold and centrifugal units use brackets, but there's no absolute rule about which way to do this.

3. Then you need to rig up pulleys to turn your supercharger. You may be able to just line the supercharger's pulley up with the other pulleys and put on a longer serpentine belt. Or you may need to add a new pulley to the crank and use a large, toothed belt called a Gilmer belt to drive it. This will depend to some extent on just how much power your supercharger needs to drive it.

In theory, you could build an electric supercharger, but you'd need a very large motor driven with wiring the size of battery cables if you wanted it to make any horsepower. It would also put an enormous strain on your charging system. Remember, an effective street supercharger is going to need somewhere between five and sixty horsepower to turn it. You ca't get that kind of power out of a motor the size of a D cell battery, or pack enough current to drive it through a 12 gauge wire. I've also heard of someone working on a hydraulic supercharger, but I never heard of such a thing turning up on the streets or the racetrack.

4. Next you will have to deal with plumbing. If you've mounted your supercharger on a bracket, you will need to run a tube from the discharge side of the supercharger to the throttle body. You can also put an intercooler somewhere in this length of tube to cool down your incoming air, which will be hotter after it leaves the supercharger. Cooling down the incoming air will boost efficiency and make your engine less likely to ping. Some superchargers will require external oil supply lines as well; most don't. You will also need to find some way to get filtered air to the supercharger's intake, even if you have a manifold-mounted supercharger. And if you've moved the throttle body, you may need to change the throttle and transmission kickdown linkage. Or maybe not.

5. Then you will need to tune it all. At this stage, you may need to add a larger fuel pump or larger injectors to get more fuel into the engine. If you have an injected motor, you'll benefit from tuning things with either an adjustable fuel pressure regulator or ECU mods. Cabureted motors will likely need new jetting and recurving the distributor. You may even need different pistons if you are particularly unlucky - or going for all out power.

You may need to move a few things in the engine compartment out of the way for some of the above steps. The most common one is having that pesky hood refuse to close until you cut a hole in it, but there are all kinds of other things that may need relocation assistance. A recent Grassroots Motorsports project where they tried to put a supercharger kit for a BMW Z3 roadster onto a 318 (BMW, not Mopar) required relocating the master cylinder reservoir, for example.

If you are putting in a supercharger from scratch, any one of those steps could be the subject of a whole magazine article. If you are buying a kit, the kit's manufacturers will hopefully provide detailed instructions that make these steps no harder than changing your alternator. Any real supercharger is going to be somewhat complicated and expensive to install. But as you can easily get 50% more horsepower, many would say it's worth it.


Car slang and termsTranny - Transmission
Slicks - Tires without a tread, used for drag racing
Meth' - Wather Methanol, used to cool the inlet temperaturs on booster cars
Bangin' a light - Starting a race with flashing a laminated device (flashlight or etc etc)
RB26DETT - Engine in a Nissan Skyline (RB being the code name, 26 being the displacement of 2.6 liters, and DETT meaning Dual Overhead Camshaft, Electronic Fuel Injection, Twin Turbocharged)
VR38DETT - Engine in Nissan GT-R R34 (VR being the code name, 38 being the displacement of 3.8 liters, and DETT meaning Dual Overhead Camshaft, Electronic Fuel Injection, Twin Turbocharged)
Bimmer - BMW
Muscle cars - American V8 Vehicles (Chevy / Ford / Dodge mainly)
JDM - Japanese Domestic Market (Skyline, Supra, RX-7)



And how can I use all this shit?Well, I explained all this, but to say it practiacaly, you probably won't need info on how to replace an engine for some RL purposes, but mostly for RP, and this is to explain y'all how you should, for instance, roleplay turbocharging or supercharging your car. Here, I'll add some more info on what you should RP and all that, I'll try to make it short and understandable.
By my reckonings, y'all should really roleplay your car as real life model, not just that it does look better, but it also improves the immersion and, fact that there's only 200ish cars in GTA:SA just promotes that fact even more, but still, you should keep it relistic and roleplay your car accordingly, not your Clover as Ferrari F40, but for instance as 68' Camaro or Mustang. Here, I'll place some guidelines on that topic.
Elegy - Nissan Skyline (R-32, R-33, R-34, R-35), BMW M3 (e36, e46, e92). Mercedes C-Class (AMG Mostly) Mitsubishi Eclipse, and so on and so on.
Sabre - Literally everything Muscle from 60's to 80's, Including Chargers, Mustangs, Camaros, Plymouths, Pontiacs and whatnot.
Buffalo - 2011+ Mustang, Camaro, Dodge (Challenger) maybe BMW M models or whatnot.
Sultan - Subaru Impreza, BMW M5, Mercedes E-Class AMG, Alfa Romeo Giulia QV, etc, etc.
Blista Compact - Honda CR-X, Civic, etc etc.
Jester - Toyota Supra, Toyota MR-2, etc, etc.
Clover - Literally everything Muscle that's older than 80's and newer than 60's.

END
Thanks for reading, I hope y'all actually got the point of this post, and that it's mainly made for racing/car factions​
 
Joined
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T. Wolf / M. Forrester
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#3
Woah alot of effort has been put into this, amazing. :thumbup:
 
Joined
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A.Taylor / E. Leonhart
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#4
That's my boy. Awesome guide! :luvrcrp:
 

Gary

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Dale Leonard
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#5
I've edited your BBCode slightly as it was fucking up both the appearance of your guide and your avatar. Other than that, great guide!

You started a justify tag inside of col and closed it outside of the /col tag, causing the BBCode to bug out.
Code:
[col][justify]blah blah blah|blah blah blah[/col][/justify]
 

Menace

Head Administrator
Joined
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#7
Where's the bit about provoking gang members and baiting cops?

Nah, I'm playing. Good effort on the guide. Seems decent from what I've read.
 

Baha

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hammer
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♪~j'ai quitté mon village~♪
#8
Great stuff dude! learnt some stuff from this! I'll surely use it in the future, thanks!
 

Deketa

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Shaun Richard
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#10
Fantastic effort and depths of explanation.

Everyone on the server should at least give this a quick skim-through! :thumbup: